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Lincoln Memorial
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Image by Jack Says Relax
The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is positioned on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon, the sculptor of the main statue – Abraham Lincoln, 1920 – was Daniel Chester French, and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. Devoted in 1922, it is 1 of many monuments constructed to honor an American president.
The constructing is in the type of a Greek Doric temple and consists of a massive seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two properly-recognized speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his Second Inaugural Address. The memorial has been the internet site of numerous famous speeches, which includes Martin Luther King’s &quotI Have a Dream&quot speech, delivered on August 28, 1963 for the duration of the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
Like other monuments on the National Mall – which includes the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National Planet War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service beneath its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America’s Preferred Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.

The initial public memorial to Abraham Lincoln in Washington D.C. was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, 3 years soon after Lincoln’s assassination.[two] Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced because the time of Lincoln’s death. In 1867, the Congress passed the very first of numerous bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was selected to style the monument. His plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, and referred to as for a 70-foot (21 m) structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot (three.7 m) statue of Abraham Lincoln. Subscriptions for the project have been insufficient.[3]
The matter lay dormant until the start off of the 20th century, when, below the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission. The initial 5 bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill (Senate Bill 9449), introduced on December 13, 1910, passed. The Lincoln Memorial Commission had its very first meeting the following year and former U.S. President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission’s president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had authorized of the Commission’s option of design and location.
The commission’s strategy was questioned. A lot of believed that architect Henry Bacon’s Greek temple style was far also ostentatious for a man of Lincoln’s humble character. Instead they proposed a basic log cabin shrine. The website also did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was noticed by several to be either also swampy or too inaccessible. Other internet sites, such as Union Station, have been put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park place, situated on the Washington Monument-Capitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Additionally, the Potomac Park site had currently been designated in the McMillan Strategy of 1901 to be the place of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.[3][4]
With Congressional approval and a ,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and following month the actual building began. Perform progressed steadily according to schedule. Some alterations have been produced to the program. The statue of Lincoln, initially made to be ten feet (3. m) tall, was enlarged to 19 feet (5.8 m) to avert it from becoming overhelmed by the enormous chamber. As late as 1920, the choice was produced to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille which was to have guarded the entrance. Regardless of these alterations, the Memorial was finished on schedule. Commission president William H. Taft – who was then Chief Justice of the United States – devoted the Memorial on Could 30, 1922 and presented it to President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American men and women. Lincoln’s only surviving son, 79-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance.[5]
The Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Locations on October 15, 1966.[6]

The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and characteristics Yule marble from Colorado. The structure measures 189.7 by 118.five feet (57.8 by 36.1 m) and is 99 feet (30 m) tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, 1 for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death, and two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade. The columns stand 44 feet (13 m) tall with a base diameter of 7.five feet (2.three m). Each column is built from 12 drums like the capital. The columns, like the exterior walls and façades, are inclined slightly toward the building’s interior. This is to compensate for viewpoint distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the best when compared with the bottom, a frequent function of Ancient Greek architecture.[7]
Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death and the dates in which they entered the Union. Their names are separated by double wreath medallions in bas-relief. The cornice is composed of a carved scroll regularly interspersed with projecting lions’ heads and ornamented with palmetto cresting along the upper edge. Above this on the attic frieze are inscribed the names of the 48 states present at the time of the Memorial’s dedication. A bit larger is a garland joined by ribbons and palm leaves, supported by the wings of eagles. All ornamentation on the friezes and cornices was completed by Ernest C. Bairstow.[7]
The Memorial is anchored in a concrete foundation, 44 to 66 feet (13 to 20 m) in depth, constructed by M. F. Comer and Firm and the National Foundation and Engineering Business, and is encompassed by a 187-by-257-foot (57 by 78 m) rectangular granite retaining wall measuring 14 feet (four.three m) in height.[7]
Top up to the shrine on the east side are the principal measures. Beginning at the edge of the Reflecting Pool, the methods rise to the Lincoln Memorial Circle roadway surrounding the edifice, then to the major portal, intermittently spaced with a series of platforms. Flanking the measures as they approach the entrance are two buttresses each crowned with an 11-foot (three.4 m) tall tripod carved from pink Tennessee marble[7] by the Piccirilli Brothers.[eight]

The location exactly where the statue stands is 60 feet wide, 74 feet extended, and 60 feet high.[9] The interior of the Memorial is divided into three chambers by two rows of Ionic columns. These columns, 4 in every single row, are 50 feet (15 m) tall and 5.five feet (1.7 m) in diameter at their base. The north and south side chambers include carved inscriptions of Lincoln’s second inaugural address and his Gettysburg Address.[ten] Bordering these inscriptions are pilasters ornamented with fasces, eagles, and wreaths. The inscriptions and adjoining ornamentation were completed by Evelyn Beatrice Longman.[7]
The Memorial is filled with symbolism: the 36 columns represent the states in the union at the time of Lincoln’s death, the 48 stone festoons on the attic above the columns represent the 48 states in 1922. Above every single of the inscriptions is a 60-by-12-foot (18 by 3.7 m) mural painted by Jules Guerin graphically portraying governing principles evident in Lincoln’s life. On the south wall mural, Freedom, Liberty, Immortality, Justice, and the Law are pictured, although the north wall portrays Unity, Fraternity, and Charity. Each scenes contain a background of cypress trees, the emblem of Eternity. The murals were crafted with a particular mixture of paint which incorporated elements of kerosene and wax to safeguard the exposed artwork from fluctuations in temperature and moisture conditions.[11]
The ceiling of the Memorial, 60 feet (18 m) above the floor, is composed of bronze girders, ornamented with laurel and oak leaves. In between the girders are panels of Alabama marble, saturated with paraffin to increase their translucency. Despite the increased light from this device, Bacon and French felt the statue necessary even far more light. They decided upon an artificial lighting technique in which a louvered lighting panel would be set in the ceiling with metal slats to conceal the wonderful floodlights. Custodians could adjust the lights from a handle room, varying them according to the outside light. Funds for this costly technique have been appropriated by Congress in 1926, and in 1929, seven years following the dedication, the statue was properly lighted. Since that time, only 1 significant alteration has taken location in the Memorial’s design. This was the addition of an elevator within the structure to help handicapped guests, which was installed in the mid-1970s.[11]

Principal report: Abraham Lincoln (French 1920)
Epitaph above Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln Statue

Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French

Basic Robert E. Lee’s profile is purportedly hidden in Lincoln’s hair the NPS claims it to be an urban legend.
Lying between the north and south chambers is the central hall containing the solitary figure of Lincoln sitting in contemplation. The statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers beneath the supervision of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and took four years to full. The statue, originally intended to be only ten feet (three. m) tall, was, on further consideration, enlarged so that it lastly stood 19 feet (five.8 m) tall from head to foot, the scale getting such that if Lincoln have been standing, he would be 28 feet (eight.five m) tall. The extreme width of the statue is the very same as its height. The Georgia white marble sculpture weighs 175 short tons (159 t) and had to be shipped in 28 separate pieces.[11]
The statue rests upon an oblong pedestal of Tennessee marble ten feet (three. m) higher, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and 17 feet (5.2 m) deep. Directly beneath this lies a platform of Tennessee marble about 34.five feet (10.5 m) lengthy, 28 feet (8.5 m) wide, and six.5 inches (.17 m) higher. Lincoln’s arms rest on representations of Roman fasces, a subtle touch that associates the statue with the Augustan (and imperial) theme (obelisk and funerary monuments) of the Washington Mall.[12] The statue is discretely bordered by two pilasters, a single on every single side. Amongst these pilasters and above Lincoln’s head stands the engraved epitaph,[11] composed by Royal Cortissoz, shown in the box to the left.[13]
Sculptural attributes[edit]
The sculpture has been at the center of two urban legends. Some have claimed that the face of Basic Robert E. Lee was carved onto the back of Lincoln’s head,[14] and looks back across the Potomac toward his former house, Arlington Property, now within the bounds of Arlington National Cemetery. An additional well-known legend is that Lincoln is shown making use of sign language to represent his initials, with his left hand shaped to kind an &quotA&quot and his appropriate hand to kind an &quotL&quot, the president’s initials. The National Park Service denies both legends.[14]
However, historian Gerald Prokopowicz writes that, although it is not clear that sculptor Daniel Chester French intended Lincoln’s hands to be formed into sign language versions of his initials, it is possible that French did intend it, because he was familiar with American Sign Language, and he would have had a reason to do so, that is, to spend tribute to Lincoln for possessing signed the federal legislation providing Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, the authority to grant college degrees.[15] The National Geographic Society’s publication, &quotPinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C.&quot states that Daniel Chester French had a son who was deaf and that the sculptor was familiar with sign language.[16][17] Historian James A. Percoco has observed that, even though there are no extant documents displaying that French had Lincoln’s hands carved to represent the letters &quotA&quot and &quotL&quot in American Sign Language, &quotI consider you can conclude that it is reasonable to have that sort of summation about the hands.&quot[18]
Sacred space[edit]

The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 people to the National Mall and is popular for Martin Luther King, Jr.’s I Have a Dream speech.
As Sandage, (1993) demonstrates, the Memorial has turn into a symbolically sacred venue especially for the Civil Rights movement. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to permit the African-American contralto Marian Anderson to carry out ahead of an integrated audience at the organization’s Constitution Hall. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for a functionality on the measures of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday of that year, to a live audience of 70,000, and a nationwide radio audience.
On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds had been the web site of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a higher point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that roughly 250,000 individuals came to the event, where they heard Martin Luther King, Jr., provide his historic speech, &quotI Have a Dream&quot, just before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. The D.C. police also appreciated the place since it was surrounded on 3 sides by water, so that any incident could be effortlessly contained.[19] Twenty years later, on August 28, 1983, crowds gathered once more to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. The &quotI Have a Dream&quot speech is such a element of the Lincoln Memorial story, that the spot on which King stood, on the landing eighteen actions beneath Lincoln’s statue, was engraved in 2003 in recognition of the 40th anniversary of the event. This engraving can be simple to miss unless one walks up the really center of the steps. The engraving is not massive and the letters have not been painted in to make them more readable.

The location on the measures exactly where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription
At the memorial on Could 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon had a middle-of-the-evening impromptu, brief meeting with protesters who, just days soon after the Kent State shootings, have been preparing to march against the Vietnam War.
The Memorial right now[edit]

Approximately six million people check out the memorial annually.[20] In 2007, the Memorial was ranked seventh in the List of America’s Favored Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.[21] The Memorial is open to the public 24 hours a day and is totally free to go to.

Image from page 179 of “The manufacture of pulp and paper : a textbook of contemporary pulp and paper mill practice” (1921)
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Identifier: manufactureofpul03join
Title: The manufacture of pulp and paper : a textbook of modern pulp and paper mill practice
Year: 1921 (1920s)
Authors: Joint Textbook Committee of the Paper Business Stephenson, J. Newell
Subjects: Papermaking Wood-pulp
Publisher: New York : McGraw-Hill Book Firm
Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

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Text Appearing Prior to Image:
Fig. 30 (o).

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. 30(six). Fig. 30 (a) is a photograph of a straight-cut burr Fig. 30 (six)shows a segment of a grindstone, and it indicates the relationbetween the rotation of the grindstone, dressed with a straight-cut burr, and the pulpwood stick. 1 represents a segment of thegrindstone 2, the partially ground pulp-wood stick three, number ofgrooves per inch of periphery of stone, corresponding again withthe reduce, quantity, or pitch of burr utilized for sharpening the stone4, the direction of rotation of the stone relative to the axis ofpulpwood stick 5 is a section of the surfaces in get in touch with betweenthe pulpwood and grindstone, showing the grooves in which the §3 THE MECHANICAL-PULP MILL 51 fibers stay, protected from re-grinding, until washed from thesurface of the stone by shower water, at each and every revolution. With this variety of burr, a long fiber is produced, but the proportionof slivers or waste is high. The quantity of slivers might bereduced by making the distance amongst the ridges of the burrsmaller or, i

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Please note that these pictures are extracted from scanned page pictures that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not completely resemble the original operate.

Image from page 178 of “The manufacture of pulp and paper : a textbook of modern day pulp and paper mill practice” (1921)
4 axis milling
Image by Net Archive Book Photos
Identifier: manufactureofpul03join
Title: The manufacture of pulp and paper : a textbook of modern day pulp and paper mill practice
Year: 1921 (1920s)
Authors: Joint Textbook Committee of the Paper Business Stephenson, J. Newell
Subjects: Papermaking Wood-pulp
Publisher: New York : McGraw-Hill Book Organization
Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Photos: All Pictures From Book

Click right here to view book on the internet to see this illustration in context in a browseable on-line version of this book.

Text Appearing Prior to Image:
The high quality of pulp created by eachstone is affected by the combination adopted. For any sort of burr utilized beneath the exact same situations, a coarserburr (4 to 6 cut) will grind the greatest amount of wood at aminimum horsepower per ton of product but the freeness of thepulp will be high for the coarse burr, and the waste will also behigh. As the coarseness of the burr is decreased, the productionand waste will reduce, and when a fine burr (12 reduce) is utilized, theproduction will be low and temperature of grinding improved. §3 THE MECHANICAL-PULP MILL 49 71. The Thread Burr.—This burr resembles in appearance thethreads on a large bolt. These burrs are graded according to thenumber of threads that they have to the inch of face thus, a six-cutburr has six threads to the inch, measured parallel to the axis. Fig. 28 is a photograph of a thread burr Fig. 29 showssegment of a grindstone, and it indicates the relation among therotation of the grindstone, dressed with a thread burr, and that of

Text Appearing Right after Image:
Fig. 28

Note About Pictures
Please note that these pictures are extracted from scanned web page images that may possibly have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations could not completely resemble the original perform.