Some cool china metal machining images:
Tupolev SB High-Speed Bomber. 1934. Скоростной бомбардировщик Туполева СБ
Image by Peer.Gynt
Central Air Force Museum at Monino Airfield. Moscow
Центральный Музей ВВС. Монино.
The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name Tupolev SB (Russian: Скоростной бомбардировщик – Skorostnoi Bombardirovschik – "high speed bomber"), and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three-seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934.
The design was very advanced, but lacked refinement, much to the dismay of crews and maintenance personnel – and of Stalin, who pointed out that "there are no trivialities in aviation".
Numerically the most important bomber in the world in the late 1930s, the SB was the first modern stressed-skin aircraft produced in quantity in the Soviet Union and probably the most formidable bomber of the mid-1930s. Many versions saw extensive action in Spain, the Republic of China, Mongolia, Finland and at the beginning of the War against Germany in 1941. It was also used in various duties in civil variants, as trainers and in many secondary roles.
Successful in the Spanish Civil War because it outpaced most fighters, the aircraft was obsolete by 1941. By June 1941, 94% of bombers in the Red Army air force (VVS RKKA) were SBs.
In 1933 the Soviet Air Force ministry (UVVS) issued an outline requirement for a high-speed bomber. Work on this proposal at TsAGI began in January 1934. The SB was designed and developed in the Tupolev KB ("Design Bureau") by a team led by A. A. Arkhangelski. Two versions were planned – with Wright Cyclone radial engines (ANT-40 RTs), and with the Hispano-Suiza 12Y liquid-cooled V12 engines (ANT-40 IS). The skills gained in the design of the MI-3 and DI-8 aircraft were widely used. The first two prototypes were designed as ANT-40.1 and ANT-40.2. The Cyclone powered prototype flew first, on 7 October 1934, with the first Hispano-Suiza powered prototype (ANT-401), which featured a larger wing, flew on 30 December 1934, demonstrating superior performance.
The second Hispano-Suiza powered aircraft, the ANT-402 was considered a production prototype, and its performance was impressive. It was however plagued by teething problems, leading unhappy test personnel to cover the ANT-402 with placards listing the aircraft’s defects prior to a visit by Sergo Ordzhonikidze, the Commissar for Heavy Industry. On seeing these placards, Ordzhonikidze summoned Tupolev to a meeting at the Kremlin to discuss these shortfalls. When Tupolev stated that most of the defects were trivial. On hearing this, Joseph Stalin said:
There are no trivialities in aviation; everything is serious and any uncorrected ‘triviality’ could lead to the loss of an aircraft and its crew.
The first production aircraft, designated SB, rolled off the production line before the end of 1935, and before ANT-402 had completed its flight test programme. The aircraft entered full production in 1936, and was produced in two plants, State Aircraft Factory No 22 at Moscow and No 125 at Irkutsk until 1941.
Despite the fact that the assembly lines were plagued with a constant string of modifications, some 400 SBs were delivered by the end of 1936 – a number of these being diverted to Spain – and 24 VVS squadrons were in the process of working up with the new bomber. Giving excellent performance in the Spanish Civil War, it acquired the popular name "Katyusha" (Catherine).
In 1937, negotiations were successfully concluded between the Soviet and Czechoslovak governments for the supply of SB bombers and a licence for local production in exchange for the right to produce the Skoda 75 mm Model 1936 mountain gun. The version of the SB to be supplied to, and subsequently license-built as the Avia B-71 was fundamentally the SB 2M-100A but fitted with the Avia-built Hispano-Suiza 12-Ydrs engine. A single 7.92 mm ZB-30 machine gun supplanted the twin ShKAS machine guns in the nose and similar weapons were provided for the dorsal and ventral stations.
Sixty aircraft were to be flown to Czechoslovakia by mid-1938. The planned licensed production program took a decidedly leisurely course, despite the increasingly dangerous political situation. By 15 March 1939, when the German Wehrmacht occupied Bohemia and Moravia, not one Czech-built aircraft had been delivered.
Development of the SB continued, meanwhile, with revisions being made to reflect the lessons of early operations in Spain. As problems were encountered in converting pilots to fly the SB, a trainer version, the USB was built in September 1937, with a modified nose with an open cockpit for an instructor and dual controls. Problems were also encountered with the aircraft’s armament, with the nose guns having limited traverse and so being little use against head-on attacks. Later aircraft were modified with a better field of fire. From 1940 the dorsal gun position was replaced by an enclosed turret, while the ventral gun position, which was difficult to use effectively, was also modified.
The aircraft was also progressively fitted with improved engines. At first it was equipped with the Klimov M-100, a license-built version of the Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs engine, but this was soon replaced by the more powerful M-100A, and from 1938 by the yet more powerful M-103. While the engine installation of the SB 2-M103 initially retained the drag inducing frontal radiators of the M-100 powered aircraft, an improved engine installation was developed with the radiators slung under the engines. On 2 September 1937 M.Yu. Alexeev set an official altitude record of 12,246 m (40,177 ft) with load of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) in an M-103 powered SB. He had earlier set an unofficial record of 12,695 m (41,650 ft).
In an attempt to further improve the performance of the SB, which by 1939 was becoming obsolete, the development of two second-generation versions were authorised, a direct replacement for the SB and a specialised dive bomber. The level bomber, known as the SN-MN or MMN, had a new wing of reduced wing area and was powered by more powerful Klimov M-105 engines. Performance was little better than the standard aircraft, however, and it was abandoned. The dive-bomber, designated SB-RK (later redesignated Arkhangelsky Ar-2 after its designer, with Tupolev having been imprisoned and being in disgrace) was similar to the MMN but was fitted with dive brakes. Testing was successful, and it was ordered into production.
Even though the SB was no longer a state of the art aircraft, production continued to increase through 1939 and 1940, as the Soviet Union tried to build up the strength of their air forces to compete with the growing threat of Nazi Germany, with almost 4,000 being built in these two years. The SB was phased out of production in early 1941, being replaced by the Petlyakov Pe-2. A total of 5,695 were built at Factory No 22 at Moscow before it was evacuated to Kazan, while Factory No 125 built a further 1,136 at Irkutsk. Three prototypes were built at the Tupolev design bureau, while Aero Vodochody and Avia in Czechoslovakia built 45 and 66 respectively, giving a total of 6,945 built.
The SB was an all-metal monoplane powered by two Klimov M-100 12-cylinder water-cooled engines (license production version of Hispano-Suiza 12-Yrds engine) which drove fixed-pitch two-bladed metal propellers. The engines were provided with honeycomb-type frontal radiators enclosed by vertical thermostat-controlled cooling shutters. At an early production stage, the M-100 engine gave place to an improved M-100A engine, driving ground-adjustable three-pitch propellers, with speed being boosted to 423 km/h (263 mph) at 4,000 m (13,000 ft). Because of its broad, high aspect ratio wing, that gave it a good altitude performance – Russian crews nicknamed the SB the "Pterodactyl"
After war, many ANT-40s that survived the Second World War were scrapped. In the late 1970s, however, Vozdushni Transport (A Soviet aviation newspaper) sent an expedition led by Evgeny Konoplev to survey an ANT-40 that was forced to land during a snow storm near the Yuzhne Muiski mountain range in the Baikal region. Konoplev considered what they found encouraging, with the aircraft being in fairly decent condition, in turn leading a team of VVS pilots to recover the airplane. It was returned to Moscow and restored by a group of volunteer Tupolev employees. The restored aircraft was unveiled in April 1982 at the Central Air Force Museum at Monino Airfield, the only known surviving ANT-40 of the almost 7,000 built.