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Lincoln Memorial
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The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is situated on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon, the sculptor of the major statue – Abraham Lincoln, 1920 – was Daniel Chester French, and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. Committed in 1922, it is 1 of many monuments built to honor an American president.
The constructing is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and consists of a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two properly-identified speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his Second Inaugural Address. The memorial has been the internet site of a lot of well-known speeches, such as Martin Luther King’s &quotI Have a Dream&quot speech, delivered on August 28, 1963 in the course of the rally at the finish of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service beneath its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Locations considering that October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America’s Preferred Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.

The initial public memorial to Abraham Lincoln in Washington D.C. was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, 3 years following Lincoln’s assassination.[2] Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln’s death. In 1867, the Congress passed the very first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design and style the monument. His plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, and referred to as for a 70-foot (21 m) structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot (three.7 m) statue of Abraham Lincoln. Subscriptions for the project have been insufficient.[three]
The matter lay dormant till the begin of the 20th century, when, below the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills have been introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission. The 1st five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, and 1908, met with defeat since of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill (Senate Bill 9449), introduced on December 13, 1910, passed. The Lincoln Memorial Commission had its initial meeting the following year and former U.S. President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission’s president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commission’s choice of style and location.
The commission’s plan was questioned. Many thought that architect Henry Bacon’s Greek temple design and style was far also ostentatious for a man of Lincoln’s humble character. Rather they proposed a basic log cabin shrine. The internet site as well did not go unopposed. The not too long ago reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was noticed by several to be either as well swampy or too inaccessible. Other web sites, such as Union Station, had been put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington Monument-Capitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was best. Moreover, the Potomac Park internet site had already been designated in the McMillan Strategy of 1901 to be the place of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.[three][four]
With Congressional approval and a ,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was performed and following month the actual construction began. Function progressed steadily according to schedule. Some adjustments have been created to the program. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be ten feet (three. m) tall, was enlarged to 19 feet (5.eight m) to stop it from becoming overhelmed by the huge chamber. As late as 1920, the selection was created to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille which was to have guarded the entrance. In spite of these alterations, the Memorial was completed on schedule. Commission president William H. Taft – who was then Chief Justice of the United States – devoted the Memorial on Could 30, 1922 and presented it to President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American folks. Lincoln’s only surviving son, 79-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance.[5]
The Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Areas on October 15, 1966.[6]

The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and functions Yule marble from Colorado. The structure measures 189.7 by 118.five feet (57.eight by 36.1 m) and is 99 feet (30 m) tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one particular for every single of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death, and two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade. The columns stand 44 feet (13 m) tall with a base diameter of 7.five feet (2.3 m). Each column is built from 12 drums which includes the capital. The columns, like the exterior walls and façades, are inclined slightly toward the building’s interior. This is to compensate for point of view distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the prime when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture.[7]
Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death and the dates in which they entered the Union. Their names are separated by double wreath medallions in bas-relief. The cornice is composed of a carved scroll routinely interspersed with projecting lions’ heads and ornamented with palmetto cresting along the upper edge. Above this on the attic frieze are inscribed the names of the 48 states present at the time of the Memorial’s dedication. A bit larger is a garland joined by ribbons and palm leaves, supported by the wings of eagles. All ornamentation on the friezes and cornices was carried out by Ernest C. Bairstow.[7]
The Memorial is anchored in a concrete foundation, 44 to 66 feet (13 to 20 m) in depth, constructed by M. F. Comer and Firm and the National Foundation and Engineering Firm, and is encompassed by a 187-by-257-foot (57 by 78 m) rectangular granite retaining wall measuring 14 feet (4.3 m) in height.[7]
Leading up to the shrine on the east side are the primary methods. Beginning at the edge of the Reflecting Pool, the methods rise to the Lincoln Memorial Circle roadway surrounding the edifice, then to the main portal, intermittently spaced with a series of platforms. Flanking the methods as they strategy the entrance are two buttresses each and every crowned with an 11-foot (three.4 m) tall tripod carved from pink Tennessee marble[7] by the Piccirilli Brothers.[8]

The location where the statue stands is 60 feet wide, 74 feet long, and 60 feet high.[9] The interior of the Memorial is divided into 3 chambers by two rows of Ionic columns. These columns, four in each and every row, are 50 feet (15 m) tall and 5.5 feet (1.7 m) in diameter at their base. The north and south side chambers include carved inscriptions of Lincoln’s second inaugural address and his Gettysburg Address.[ten] Bordering these inscriptions are pilasters ornamented with fasces, eagles, and wreaths. The inscriptions and adjoining ornamentation have been accomplished by Evelyn Beatrice Longman.[7]
The Memorial is filled with symbolism: the 36 columns represent the states in the union at the time of Lincoln’s death, the 48 stone festoons on the attic above the columns represent the 48 states in 1922. Above every of the inscriptions is a 60-by-12-foot (18 by 3.7 m) mural painted by Jules Guerin graphically portraying governing principles evident in Lincoln’s life. On the south wall mural, Freedom, Liberty, Immortality, Justice, and the Law are pictured, although the north wall portrays Unity, Fraternity, and Charity. Each scenes contain a background of cypress trees, the emblem of Eternity. The murals had been crafted with a particular mixture of paint which included components of kerosene and wax to defend the exposed artwork from fluctuations in temperature and moisture situations.[11]
The ceiling of the Memorial, 60 feet (18 m) above the floor, is composed of bronze girders, ornamented with laurel and oak leaves. In between the girders are panels of Alabama marble, saturated with paraffin to improve their translucency. Regardless of the increased light from this device, Bacon and French felt the statue necessary even far more light. They decided upon an artificial lighting system in which a louvered lighting panel would be set in the ceiling with metal slats to conceal the fantastic floodlights. Custodians could adjust the lights from a handle space, varying them according to the outside light. Funds for this pricey technique have been appropriated by Congress in 1926, and in 1929, seven years after the dedication, the statue was effectively lighted. Because that time, only one major alteration has taken place in the Memorial’s design. This was the addition of an elevator within the structure to help handicapped visitors, which was installed in the mid-1970s.[11]

Main write-up: Abraham Lincoln (French 1920)
Epitaph above Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln Statue

Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French

General Robert E. Lee’s profile is purportedly hidden in Lincoln’s hair the NPS claims it to be an urban legend.
Lying between the north and south chambers is the central hall containing the solitary figure of Lincoln sitting in contemplation. The statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers under the supervision of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and took 4 years to comprehensive. The statue, originally intended to be only 10 feet (three. m) tall, was, on further consideration, enlarged so that it ultimately stood 19 feet (5.8 m) tall from head to foot, the scale becoming such that if Lincoln have been standing, he would be 28 feet (eight.5 m) tall. The intense width of the statue is the very same as its height. The Georgia white marble sculpture weighs 175 quick tons (159 t) and had to be shipped in 28 separate pieces.[11]
The statue rests upon an oblong pedestal of Tennessee marble 10 feet (3. m) higher, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and 17 feet (five.2 m) deep. Straight beneath this lies a platform of Tennessee marble about 34.five feet (ten.five m) long, 28 feet (8.five m) wide, and 6.5 inches (.17 m) higher. Lincoln’s arms rest on representations of Roman fasces, a subtle touch that associates the statue with the Augustan (and imperial) theme (obelisk and funerary monuments) of the Washington Mall.[12] The statue is discretely bordered by two pilasters, a single on every side. In between these pilasters and above Lincoln’s head stands the engraved epitaph,[11] composed by Royal Cortissoz, shown in the box to the left.[13]
Sculptural characteristics[edit]
The sculpture has been at the center of two urban legends. Some have claimed that the face of Common Robert E. Lee was carved onto the back of Lincoln’s head,[14] and looks back across the Potomac toward his former property, Arlington Property, now within the bounds of Arlington National Cemetery. One more popular legend is that Lincoln is shown utilizing sign language to represent his initials, with his left hand shaped to kind an &quotA&quot and his appropriate hand to form an &quotL&quot, the president’s initials. The National Park Service denies both legends.[14]
Even so, historian Gerald Prokopowicz writes that, even though it is not clear that sculptor Daniel Chester French intended Lincoln’s hands to be formed into sign language versions of his initials, it is feasible that French did intend it, due to the fact he was familiar with American Sign Language, and he would have had a purpose to do so, that is, to pay tribute to Lincoln for having signed the federal legislation giving Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, the authority to grant college degrees.[15] The National Geographic Society’s publication, &quotPinpointing the Previous in Washington, D.C.&quot states that Daniel Chester French had a son who was deaf and that the sculptor was familiar with sign language.[16][17] Historian James A. Percoco has observed that, despite the fact that there are no extant documents displaying that French had Lincoln’s hands carved to represent the letters &quotA&quot and &quotL&quot in American Sign Language, &quotI feel you can conclude that it is affordable to have that sort of summation about the hands.&quot[18]
Sacred space[edit]

The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 men and women to the National Mall and is renowned for Martin Luther King, Jr.’s I Have a Dream speech.
As Sandage, (1993) demonstrates, the Memorial has become a symbolically sacred venue specially for the Civil Rights movement. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow the African-American contralto Marian Anderson to carry out before an integrated audience at the organization’s Constitution Hall. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for a functionality on the actions of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday of that year, to a live audience of 70,000, and a nationwide radio audience.
On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds were the website of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a higher point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that roughly 250,000 individuals came to the occasion, exactly where they heard Martin Luther King, Jr., provide his historic speech, &quotI Have a Dream&quot, just before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. The D.C. police also appreciated the location since it was surrounded on 3 sides by water, so that any incident could be very easily contained.[19] Twenty years later, on August 28, 1983, crowds gathered once again to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. The &quotI Have a Dream&quot speech is such a element of the Lincoln Memorial story, that the spot on which King stood, on the landing eighteen methods below Lincoln’s statue, was engraved in 2003 in recognition of the 40th anniversary of the occasion. This engraving can be simple to miss unless one walks up the very center of the steps. The engraving is not large and the letters have not been painted in to make them much more readable.

The place on the measures where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription
At the memorial on Could 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon had a middle-of-the-night impromptu, short meeting with protesters who, just days right after the Kent State shootings, have been preparing to march against the Vietnam War.
The Memorial nowadays[edit]

About six million folks go to the memorial annually.[20] In 2007, the Memorial was ranked seventh in the List of America’s Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects.[21] The Memorial is open to the public 24 hours a day and is cost-free to pay a visit to.

Image from page 257 of “Electrical news and engineering” (1891)
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Identifier: electricalnewsen20donm
Title: Electrical news and engineering
Year: 1891 (1890s)
Subjects: Electrical engineering
Publisher: Don Mills, Ont. [and so on.] Southam-Maclean Publications
Contributing Library: Engineering – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

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Text Appearing Before Image:
Niagara. Lockportand Ontario Power Company is the distributor. Lines runeast as far as Syracuse. The total length of transmis-sion lines fed by the Ontario Energy Companys generatorsapproximates seven hundred miles. Ten units are operating, 3 added units obtaining re-cently been installed. The generators are horizontal variety,the 1st seven Westinghouse, the last three Canadian Gen-eral Electric manufacture. The turbines are all Voith manu-facture double runner sort. The directors of the organization are J. J. Albright, presi-dent Basic Francis V. Greene, vice-president EdwardHayes, S. M. Clement, W. H. Gratwich. K. K. Albright, W.A. Rogers, Miller Lash, R. C. Board. V. G. Converse is en-gineer in charge H. H. Wilson, superintendent. The Hydraulic Energy Business This is the original Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power andManufacturing Organization. Energy is obtained from an opencanal which passes via the centre of the town of Nia-gara Falls, N. Y. Function on this canal was begun in 1852 and

Text Appearing After Image:
.Map Show iiig Lijcation Ni.iKni Falls Iuwi-r Ilanls. completed in 1861. A head of 2ia feet is availalile. The orig-inal energy-residence, named Station Xo. 1, was constructed in 1H81 andonly utilized a head of about eight.1 feci. Station No. 3 was com-menced in IHJ.) and the full head was utilised. This station includes :i3 electrical units varying from 1,(100 kilowatts downmostly direct existing. Station No. three was commenced in l.)o:i. Ten units arenow fully installed. The turbines arc I. I*. Morrismanufacture, horizontal axis, spiral case variety, ten,000 h.p. ca-pacity. The initial five electrical units installed in this stationare direct present, Common Electric manufacture, horizontaltype. They are owned by the Aluminum Company of Amer-ica who obtain energy for their operation off the turbinesof the Hydraulic Energy Business. The second five unitsare a.c. Allis-Chalmers manufacture. These are owned bythe Cliff Electrical Distributing Firm, a subsidary of theHydraulic Power Company. The Cliff Comp

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